The sources, nutritional quality and principal characteristics of milk, milk constituents and factors affecting milk composition. Different physical, chemical and microbial properties of milk will be explained. Different quality and safety test methods and applications in the dairy laboratory and/or industry will be explained. Unit/common operations (including clarification, cream separation, heat treatments, standardization, homogenization, and fermentations) that are very important before the actual dairy manufacturing operations will be explained. Moreover, dairy products and its manufacturing technologies especially for butter, cheese, beverage milks, milk powder, ice cream and by product handling. Present advances in dairy manufacturing, marketing and consumption practices in the world, tropical countries and Ethiopia will be explained. Determinants of dairy products pricing and marketing, Dairy marketing systems in Ethiopia. Indigenous/local versus commercial dairy products processing in Ethiopia. In addition, dairy technology, prospects and challenges in Ethiopia will be explained in detail.