This Module deals with matters related to sentencing and execution, two aspects of a post-conviction stage in criminal justice proceedings. Sentencing as part of the module requires the acquisition of knowledge, measure in terms of the kind, quantum and severity of punishment as envisioned by the law-maker. Execution, on the other hand, covers state affairs falling within the executive department of the government, and as such requires the establishment of institutions, procedures and facilities. The module covers the mode of execution of different sentences imposed on criminals so as to serve the purposes of punishment, and alternatives to execution of penalties such as suspension of penalties and the circumstances under which they can be resorted to. Throughout, the module considers some constitutional and human rights principles pertinent to sentencing and execution.

The course on Law of Evidence equips students with knowledge of the meaning, nature, development and classification of evidence in various legal systems. It covers such themes as proof without evidence, admission, judicial notice, presumptions and proof with evidence; it shall give special focus to relevancy and admissibility of facts in various aspects.  Oral evidence encompassing competence of witnesses and grounds of incompetence, privilege and status of hearsay as evidence are also integral parts of the course. Documentary, scientific, real and demonstrative evidences, and burden and standard of proof of facts in civil and criminal cases will likewise be discussed in conjunction with constitutional rights and protections afforded to persons subjected to investigations, searches, or the seizure of materials.

School of Law, AMU

African Human Rights Law

LLB IV Year, II semister

Course Outline


Chapter I: Introduction

1.1       Historical Development of Human Rights

1.2       The United Nations Human Rights System

1.3       Introduction to Regional Human Rights Systems with Particular  Reference to Africa


Chapter II: The General Protection: The Charter of the OAU /Constitutive Act of AU and the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights (ACHPR)

2.1. The Charter of OAU and Constitutive Act of African Union

2.2. The African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (ACHPR)

        2.2.1 Historical Background and Drafting Process of ACHPR

        2.2.2. The Distinctive Feature of the African Charter

        2.2.3. Rights Guaranteed under the Charter

   State Obligations under the ACHPR The Principles of Non-discrimination and Equality The Civil and Political Rights The Economic, Social and Cultural Rights The Rights of Peoples (Group Rights)

       2.2.4. The Concept of Duty under the African Charter

       2.2.5. Claw-Back Clauses under the African Charter


Chapter III: Special Protection to Vulnerable Groups under the African Human Rights System

3.1. Protection of Children and Youth

      3.1.1. The OAU/AU Child Rights Protection System

3.2. Protection for Women under African Human Rights system

     3.2.1. Women’s Right under the OAU/AU Framework

     3.2.2. African Protocol on the Rights of Women

3.3. Protection of Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs)

3.4. Protection for Minorities and Indigenous Peoples

    3.4.1. Protection of Minorities

    3.4.2. Indigenous Peoples


Chapter IV: The African Human Rights Enforcement Mechanisms

4.1. Introduction

4.2 The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights

   4.2.1. Composition

    4.2.2. Function of the Commission

4.3. The Committee on the Rights of the Child

4.4 The African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights

  1.  Organization of the Court
  2. Operation of the Court
  3. Functions of the Court
    1. Contentious Functions
    2. Advisory Function

4.5 The Court of Justice of the African Union (ACJ)

4.6 The Regional Initiatives: NEPAD and Related Initiatives

4.7 The Role of Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Civic Organizations

Reference Materials


1.      Elias Tamire, The African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (Addis Ababa University, 1996 Unpublished)

2.      Fatsah Ouguergouz, The African Charter on Human and Peoples’ right: A Comprehensive Agenda for Human Dignity and Sustainable Democracy in Africa (Matinus Nijhof: The Hague, 2003)

3.      Gloriose Kankindi, The Contribution of the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights to the Protection of Human Rights in Africa(Addis Ababa University, 2007, Unpublished).

4.      Manfred Nowak, Introduction to the International Human Rights Regime (Martinus Nijholf: Leiden, 2003)

5.       Menna Seged, The Merger of the African Human and Peoples’ Rights Court and the Copurt of Justice and Its Implications on Human Rights( Addis Ababa University,1996, Unpublished)


The Module on Criminal Law has been designed to give students a thorough understanding of the nature, origins and purposes of criminal law, the general principles of criminal liability and complicity to liability. It covers several considerations including the place of criminal law in criminal science, the definition of crime, and the distinction between civil and criminal wrongs. An account of the historical development of criminal law in Ethiopia will be provided; the purpose and scheme of the Revised Criminal Code of the FDRE (2004) and the classification of offences under the Code shall be discussed.

The module also covers detailed discussions of the basic principles of criminal law such as legality, equality, individual autonomy and jurisdiction. Establishing criminal liability, degrees in the commission of crime and participation, defenses available to the accused, types of punishments under the Revised Criminal Code of the FDRE, the determination of penalties, suspension of sentences, pardon, amnesty and reinstatement are some of the main themes of analyses.

The theories of punishment - including the objectives of prevention, deterrence, reformation and rehabilitation will likewise be provided emphasis with a special reference to the principle of individualization of criminal punishment. The module also explains specific crimes, defenses raised to negate responsibility, and finally presents on the Petty Code, its distinction from crimes and the purposes of petty code system.

Module Objectives, Competence Acquired

After a successful completion of the course, students are expected to achieve basic knowledge and competence regarding:

·       the meaning of Criminal Law;

·       the character, function and principles of Criminal Law;

·       the main categories of defenses against criminal liability;

·       the scope and essentials of defences;

·       punishment, the general and specific objectives and categories of punishment under the Criminal Code;

·       the principles guiding the determination of punishment;

·       the circumstances under which penalty may be reduced or increased;

·       the distinction between criminal law, private law and morality;


Chapters to be covered

Chapter I: Introduction to Criminal Law

·       General Considerations

·       The Place of Criminal Law in Criminal Science

·       Nature and Scope of Criminal Law

·       General Objectives of Criminal Law

·       Criminal Law, Private law and Morality-Distinguished

·       The Concept of Crime

·       Crime Distinguished from Civil Wrongs


Chapter II: The Development of Criminal Law of Ethiopia

·       Historical Background

·       The Criminal Code of the FDRE Proclamation No. 414/ 2004

·       Scheme of the Criminal Code of the FDRE

·       Classification of Crimes under the Criminal Code


Chapter III: Basic Principles of Criminal Law

·       Principle of Legality

·       Nullum Crimen Sine Lege

·       Certainty in Legislation

·       Accessibility of Law

·       The Rule of Strict Construction

·       Non-retroactivity of Criminal Law

·       Nulla poena sine lege

·       Non bis in idem (The Doctrine of Double Jeopardy)

·       The Principle of Equality Before Law

·       Exceptions by Virtue of Recognized Immunities

·       Immunities Sanctioned by Public International Law

·       Requirements of Individualization of Criminal Justice

·       Special Treatment of Women, Young Persons and the Feeble Minded

·       The Principle of Individual Autonomy


Chapter IV: Jurisdiction under the Ethiopian Criminal Code

·       Fundamental Principles of Application of Jurisdiction

·       Territorial Application of Principal Jurisdiction

·       Extra-Territorial Jurisdiction

·       Subsidiary Jurisdiction (Arts.17-20)

·       Extradition (Art.21)


Chapter V: Prerequisites for Criminal Liability

·       Crime and its Commission

·       Essential Elements of Crime

·       Legal Ingredients of Crime

·       Material and Moral Elements of Crime

·       Analysis of Provisions Related to Ingredients of Crime

·       Intention and Negligence

·       Relationship of Cause and Effect and Tests

·       Factors Break ing the Chain of Causation

·       Difficulties in the Assessment of Physical Element of Crime

·       Concurrence of Crimes

·       Guilt in Cases of Crimes

·       Concurrence of Criminal Provisions

·       Corporate Criminal Responsibility: Goals, Kinds and Principles



Chapter VI: Degrees in the Commission of Crime

·       Different Stages in the Commission of Crime

·       Preparation, Attempt, Renunciation and Active Repentance

·       Impossible Offences


Chapter VII: Participation in the Commission of Crime

·       Participation in Principal Capacity

·       The Material Offender

·       The Moral Offender

·       The Indirect offender

·       Participation in Secondary Capacity

·       Incitement, Complicity and Criminal Conspiracy

·       Participation of Juridical Persons in a Crime

·       Accessories After the Fact


Chapter VIII: Criminal Responsibility

·       Criminal Responsibility and Irresponsibility

·       Insanity

·       Absolute Irresponsibility

·       Limited Responsibility


·       Intoxication

·       Infancy


Chapter IX: Affirmative Defenses

·       Lawful Acts

·       Justifiable and Excusable acts

·       Professional Duty

·       Consent as a Defense

·       Coercion/Duress

·       Absolute Coercion

·       Resistible Coercion

·       Superior orders

·       Necessity

·       Legitimate Defence

·       Mistake



Chapter X: Criminal Punishment and its Application

·       Theories of Punishment

·       Retributive Theory

·       Deterrent Theory

·       Preventive Theory

·       Reformative Theory

·       Kinds of Punishment

·       Principal and Secondary Punishments

·       Special Measures

·       Determination and Suspension of Penalty

·       Discontinuance and Extinction of Penalty


Chapter XI: Special Part of Criminal Code

·       The Relationship between General and Special Parts

·       Finding the Relevant Law

·       Interrelationship of Provisions

·       Cross-references Within the Code

·       Crimes Against the State

·       Treason

·       Espionage

·       Crimes Against Life

·       Right to Life Under the Constitution

·       Constitutionality of the Death Penalty

·       Crimes Against Person

·       Crimes Against Women and Children

·       Crimes Against Property





Chapter XII: The Code of Petty Offences

·       Petty Offences - Definition

·       Jurisdiction of Petty Code

·       General Principles of Liability in case of Petty Offences

·       Penalties and Measures under the Petty Code

·       Procedural Requirements in Petty Offences

·       Enforcement of Penalties underthe Petty Code


Chapter XIII: Criminal Law in a Changing World

·       Social Values and the Ambit of Criminal Law


·       Economic Crimes against Community

·       Environment Pollution and the Criminal Law

·       Sexual Permissiveness and the Criminal Law

·       Criminal Law in a Welfare State

·       Modern Science and Responsibility of the Individual

·       Modern Psychology, Control over Behavior and the Criminal Law

·       Changing Purposes of Punishment

·       Alternatives to the Criminal Sanction

·       What Future for the Criminal Law?

Methods of Delivery

Lectures, seminars, student presentations, group discussions, individual and group tutorials, assignments and project supervisions.



The final grade shall be determined based on the performance of students in the following activities:

·       Class Participation…5%

·       Tests …20%

·       Student Presentations…15%

·       Assignments / Project/ Essays…15%

·       Quiz…5%

·       Final Exam…50%



·       Dejene Girma Janka, Ethiopian Criminal Law Handbook


·       Philippe Graven, An Introduction to Ethiopian Penal Code, Addis Ababa, 1965

·       Lowenstein Stephen, Materials for Study of the Penal Law of Ethiopia, 1965

·       Wayne R. Lafave, Criminal Law,West Publishing Co.2003

·       C.M.V. Clarkson and H.M. Keating, Criminal Law, Fourth Edition, 1999

·       Andrew Ashworth, Principles of Criminal Law, 5th Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006

·       J.C. Smith and Hogen, Criminal Law, 1992

·       Andargatchew Tesfaye, The Crime Problem and its Correction, Vol. II 2004

·       Friedmann.W, Law in Changing Society, 2nd Edition, Sweet & Maxwell Ltd., UK, 2003

·       Graven, J., The Penal Code of The Empire of Ethiopia, JEL Vol.I, No.2, 1964

·       Strauss, PL., Interpreting the Ethiopian Penal Code, JEL Vol.5, No.2, 1965

·       Lowenstein, S., The Penal System of Ethiopia, JEL Vol. II, No.2, 1965

·       Skir, R., Desire, Knowledge and Certainty, JEL Vol. VIII, No.2, 1972

·       Fasil, N., Punishment and Society: A Developmental Approach, JEL Vol. I, No. 2, 1982


The course deals with the aspects of FORENSIC SCIENCE: covers the meaning, goals, historical development, principles that governs evidences, contribution of forensic science in the investigation of evidences and its potential values that provides to the justice system. It also gives an overview on meanings, aspects and theories of physical evidences. Particularly medico legal aspects of death, blood, body fluids (semen, saliva etc.) toxicological samples, and other physical evidences (like: fingerprints, palm prints, trace samples). This part also touches up on presentation of basic techniques in forensic science, (search and seizure techniques, photography, video graph, taking, preserving, analysis and interpretation of physical evidences) to prove innocence or guilt of a suspect in criminal cases by supplying scientific explanation and interpretation of evidences

In this course, you should be able to:

Ø  theories and techniques that can be used to investigate crime causations;

Ø  to prevent or reduce crime problems; to promote explanations,

Ø  interpretations or justifications of legal practices; and

Explain the relation ship between evidence and crime

Unit One: Concept and Concerns of Forensic Science

·          Define and discuss Forensic Science including its goals and importance in  the justice  system.

·          Explain the concerns of the forensic science.

·          Familiarize themselves with application of basic science to in forensic science.

·          Appreciate how the forensic science applies the basic science for the legal issues and concerns.

The Meaning, Goals and Historical Development Forensic science.

Sub-fields of Forensic science: Forensic psychology Forensic biology, Forensic chemistry. Forensic medicine (pathology, Toxicology), Forensic geology etc---  

Protection, investigation and examination of crime scene.

1.3.1 Protecting scene of a crime

Investigation of crime scene

Examination of crime scene


            Sketching, Videotaping

            Collection of physical evidences.

Physical evidences preservation, and analysis

Unit Two: Forensic science and Evidences

Up on completion of this unit, students would be able to:

-                       List Evidences and principle applied to the evidences analysis.

-                       Understand the admissibility of evidences.

-                       Explain the potential uses of forensic (crime) laboratories in explanation of physical evidences.

 2.1.Type of physical evidences

2.2. Role of evidences in proving the criminal (suspect)

2.3. The use of forensic laboratories

2.4. Methods applied in evidence analysis

Unit  Three:  Fingerprint and DNA evidences

Up on completion of this unit, students would be able to:

·          Explain the meanings, theories and usefulness of fingerprint in identification of an individual.

·          List types and principles that govern fingerprint identification.

·          Explain about DNA evidence and its potential value in individualization of criminals its application in paternity cases.

·          Understand technological developments in fingerprint identification in giving accurate, thorough, timely analysis results for the justice system.

3.1.          Meanings, principles and historical developments of fingerprint

3.2.          Types and individuality of fingerprint   

3.3.               DNA and its application in justice system


Unit Four: Ballistics and Trace evidences

Up on completion of this unit, students would be able to:

·          Explain the meanings, theories and usefulness of Ballistics in identification of criminals.

·          List ballistics evidences and their analysis.

·          Explain meanings, theories and usefulness Tracology in investigation of criminals.

·          List types of trace evidences.

·          4.1. Ballistics evidences and their application in criminal identification

4.2. Trace evidences identification and analysis.

Unit Five. Blood and other Body fluid evidences

Up on completion of this unit, students would be able to:

·          Discuss the medicolegl aspects of blood evidence.

·          Familiarize them selves with analysis paternity of blood evidence.

·          Discuss medicolegl aspects of semen, other body fluids

·          Familiarize themselves with the semen analysis of evidences.

5.1.1.                                                           Blood as physical evidence 

5.1.2.           Semen as a physical evidence


Unit Six. Arson and explosive evidences

Up on completion of this unit, students would be able to:

·          define arson and explain steps in arson analysis

·          Discuss arson evidences in legal aspects.

·          Define explosive and its potential Value as an evidences.

  6.1.        Arson evidences 

   6.2.       Explosives as physical evidences

Unit Seven.  Medico legal aspects of Death and Toxicology.

Up on completion of this unit, students would be able to:

·          Discuss on medico legal aspects of death.

·          Explain about Forensic identification of death.

·          Define poisoning and its analysis, results in medico legal aspects

7.1       Medico legal aspects of Death

7.2       Forensic identification of death.

Poisoning and Toxicology


1.        Blythe Camnson  (2001). Forensic science career (VGM career books)

2.        BAJ Fisher  (2000). Techniques of crime scene investigation.(6th ed.) CRC press

3.        R. Safer stein, Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science, 2d ed. (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1981)

4.        George Schiro, Crime scene protection. Forensic Scientist, Louisiana State Police Crime Laboratory

5.        Taylor’s (1948). Principles and Practice of medical jurisprudence, 10th ed. Vol. I, J and A. Churchill LTD.

6.        Taylor’s (1948). Principles and Practice of medical jurisprudence, 10th ed. Vol. II, J and A. Churchill LTD

7.        Vernon J. gebert, (1993), Practical Homicide Investigation, Tactics, Procedures and forensic techigues, 2nd, CRC Press.

8.        Kirk’s (1998). Crime Investigation.


1.        Frank Lundquist, (1965). Methods of Forensic Science, Volume I, John Wiley and Sons, New York.  

2.        C.P. Stewart, (1961) Toxicology Mechanism and analytical methods, Volume I, Academic Press.

3.        Joe nickell (1996), Forensic Investigation of Documents for Detecting Forgery., University Press of Kentucky.

4.        Robert D. Morrison,(1999), Environment Forensic: Principles  and Application ,CRC Press, Florida .

5.        Barry Levine,(1999). Principles of toxicology, American association for Clinical chemistry.

6.        James f. Cowgar, (1993). Friction ridge skin: Comparison and identification of finger print, CRC Press.

7.        Mark A. Farley and (et, al. 1990). Forensic DNA technology, Lewis publisher.

8.        Steve Jones (19970.In the Blood: God, Genes and Destiny, Harper Collins.


The course on Sociology begins by introducing students with the subject matter of sociology - covering the definition, historical development, types and sub-fields of sociology, and theoretical perspectives and research methods. It also covers such themes as culture, socialization and society and law, focusing on the relationship between  social  and  legal  systems. Likewise,  it  provides  an  overview  of  social organization, bureaucracy, social institutions and social processes. The  course  on  Criminology  deals  with  the  making  and  breaking  of  law  and society’s reaction to such conduct. It studies crime as an individual and social phenomenon, and its causes and consequences, and provides a general overview of the major criminological theories such as biological, psychological, sociological, differential association, strain and subculture etc on the causes of criminality. The course also deals  with the Ethiopian criminal justice system in general and the constitutional provisions pertaining to the criminal justice system and the justice administration agencies.

In this course, you should be able to:                                                

Ø  Clearly define and explain concepts such as society, culture and socialization.

Ø  Explain the fundamental of Sociology.

Ø  Appreciate the importance of society and law.

Ø  Recognize the relationship between social law and legal systems.

Ø  To understand the social organization, social process and institutions.

Ø  The nature of crime and elements

Ø  To define criminology and its importance

Ø  Analyze the causes and consequences of crime.

Ø  To define theories and causes of crime and criminality.

To know various factors influencing crime.

Part I: Sociology for Lawyers:

Chapter One: The Subject Matter of Sociology.


On completion of this chapter, students should be able to:

· Define sociology, sociological imagination, sociology of law and other key concepts relevant to legal studies, and appreciate the nexus between sociology and law

· Describe and discuss the types and sub-fields of sociology

· Know the concerns of sociology and analyze these with the legal context

1.1.  Conceptual Framework

1.1.1.        The Meaning of   Sociology

1.1.2.         Understanding Sociological Imagination and Sociology of Law

1.2.        Types and Sub-fields of sociology

1.2.1.        Types of sociology

Sub-fields of sociology(Sociology of law, Urban-, rural-, legal-, industrial-, political-,… sociology)

Chapter Two: Introduction to sociological theories and methods.


On completion of chapter two, students should be able to:

·  Define the major sociological theories;

·  Know why sociological theory and research;

·  Write short essay on the functionalism, conflict theory, feminist perspective and interactionism;

·  Discuss the principles, aims, basic components and techniques of sociological research;

·  Explain the principles, aims, basic components and techniques of sociological research by comparing with legal research; and

2.1 Introduction to sociological theories

2.2 Understanding sociological methods

Chapter Three: Culture, Society and Law- an overview.


On completion of chapter three, students should be able to:

· Define culture, socialization, society and explain key concepts that have relevance to legal studies, system and practices.

· Describe and discuss the basic elements and features of culture and society by associating with legal contexts.

· Discuss the relationship and impact of law on society and that of society on law

· Familiarize themselves with the relationship between social system, culture and legal system and appreciate the influence of one over the other.

3.1. Culture and Socialization

 3.2. Society and Law: Features and Impacts

 3.3. Social and Legal systems: Overview and Relationship


Chapter Four: Social Organization, Processes and Institutions.


On completion of chapter four, students should be able to:

·       Identify and define the major types of social organizations and discuss the role of law.

·       Familiarize themselves with the major social processes with the legal context.

·       Achieve broader understanding about bureaucracy with its purpose, features and consequences

·       Describe and explain the major social institutions including their features, functions and the place of legal institutions

 4.1. Social Organizations and Bureaucracy

    4.1.1. Types and features of social organizations

    4.1.2. Bureaucracy: Meaning, Purpose and Consequences

 4.2. Social Processes: social structure, relationship/interaction, stratification, mobility, change and inequalities

 4.3. Overview of social institutions: The meaning, features and roles

     4.3.1. Family, Marriage and Divorce.

Part II: Understanding Deviance, Delinquency, Criminology and Correctional Administration for Lawyers:

Chapter five: Deviance, Delinquency and Criminology for Lawyers.


On completion of chapter five, students should be able to:

· Define  and differentiate between deviance, crime, juvenile delinquency, victimology, penology, and criminology;

· Describe the major schools of thoughts of criminology and theories on the causative factors of crime;

· Discuss the measurement of crime and delinquency including the values and sources of criminal statistics;

· Explain victimology, the types of crime problems, criminals and systems of correctional administration or rehabilitation


 5.1. Understanding Deviance, Delinquency and the schools of thought of Criminology

     5.1.1. Understanding Deviance, Crime, Delinquency and Criminology

     5.1.2. Major Schools of Thoughts

  Classical School

  Positivist School


5.2 Theories of Crime Causation and Deviance

  5.2.1. Anthropological/Biological Theory

  5.2.2. Ecological Theory/Geography and Ecology as cause of crime and delinquency/

  5.2.3. Psychological Theory

  5.2.4. Sociological Theories

  5.2.5. Economic Theory


5.3. Types of Crime problems and Criminals

5.4. Victimology and Measurement of Crime

 5.4.1. What and why do we measure?

 5.4.2. The values and sources of crime statistics

 5.4.3. The state of crime statistics in Ethiopia

Chapter Six: An overview of Correctional Administration and Rehabilitation.


On completion of chapter six, students should be able to:

·    Define correctional administration/rehabilitation;

·    Describe the role of law enforcement agencies in controlling and preventing crime problems and delinquency;

·    Explain the purposes, scopes and  principles of punishment and treatment of offenders

·    Discuss the importance of alternatives to imprisonment/community-based rehabilitation/

6.1. The Meaning, Purpose, and Types of Correctional Administration

6.2. Punishment and Treatment of Offenders: Purpose, Scope, and Principles

Readings and Reference:

o Kirby, M. et al. (1997); Calhoun & Suzanne (1994); Schaefer (2003); Zanden (1993); Timasceff (1976)

· Calhoun & Suzanne (1994); Kirby, M. et al. (1997); Ritzer J(1996); Schaefer(2003); Zanden (1993); Dawson(2002); Saxena (1996)

Sanderson, John (1995); Adler(1995);  Andargatchew(2004& 1988);  Dawson(2002); Timasceff(1976); FDRE (2005); Saxena D.R(1996);

· Ainsworth, P, et al.  (1997). Introduction to Accounting: An integrated Approach. McGraw –Hill: Boston.

· Engda Bayou. (2002). Introduction to Accounting. Mega Publishing Enterprise: Addis Ababa.

· Fees Warren.  Accounting principles. 10th-13th ed. South Western publishing company.

· Fess Warren. Accounting Principles. 14th-17th ed.

· Kamal Gupta, “Fundamental of Auditing,” fourth reprint, mcgraw-Hill, 2000

· Kirby, M. et al. (1997). Sociology in Perspective, Heinemann Educational Publishers, England

· Larry F. Konrath, “Auditing concepts and application,” West publishing company, 1989

· Mehari Haile. (1991). Simplified Bookkeeping and Accounting. Kuraz Agency: Addis Ababa

· Meigs, Whittington, Pany, and Meigs, “Principles of Auditing,” ninth edition, IRWIN, 1989

·   Patrick R. Delney and Irvin N, Gleim, “CPA examination Review,” Wiley, 1992

· Weygandt, Kieso, Kimmel (1999).  Accounting Principles, 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York.

· William Walter & Richard (1989) modern auditing, fourth edition.

·  Whittington, Pany, Meigs and Meigs (1992), principles of auditing, tenth edition


·  Johnson, Alan(1995). The Blackwell Dictionary of Sociology, Blackwell Publishers

·  Knafla L. A & Susan W.S B (eds) (1995). Law, Society and the State, University of Toronto Press

·   Wash Dermot & Andria Poole (1997). A Dictionary of Criminology, Universal Book Stall, New Delhi

·   Adler Freda, Cerhard O.W.M & William S.L (1995). Criminology, 2nd ed, McGraw Hill, New York.

·  Ainsworth, P, et al.  (1997). Introduction to Accounting: An integrated Approach. McGraw –Hill: Boston.


·   Fees Warren.  Accounting principles. 10th-13th ed. South Western publishing company

·  Weygandt, Kieso, Kimmel (1999).  Accounting Principles, 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York.

· Zanden James W.V (1993). Sociology: The Core , 3rd ed, The Ohio State University