Department of Rural Development and Agricultural Extension/RDAE

                                         Course Title: Rural Sociology and Agricultural Extension                  

                                                         Course Code:  RDAE 3115

                                                              Credit Hrs:  3 =   ECTS 5

                                                              Academic Year: 2019

                                                              Instructor: Arega A. (M.Sc.)

                                                                                  Phone +125912784682,

                                                                                  Office location; RDAE staff

                                                             Participants: 3rd NARM; Semester: II

Course Outline

I. Overview of the course

In this course students will explore wide aspects of Rural Sociology and Agricultural Extension which will enable them to play significant role in promoting sustainable agricultural and rural development in Ethiopia and other developing countries. In the first part of the course (Introduction to Rural Sociology), the general concepts, meaning of sociology; the development of social systems; scope and importance of rural sociology; features of rural communities; social organization and institution in rural setting; the socio-cultural barriers to rural transformation; social change and process; meaning of social change; factors of social change; and rate of social change will be dealt with. In the second part of the course, agricultural extension-meaning and concepts of extension; rural development-concepts of rural development; the role of agriculture in national development; problems and potentials of Ethiopian agriculture; concepts and principles of agricultural extension; extension program and evaluation extension methods and audiovisual aids will be dealt.


II. Course Objectives:


1. Provide students with grounding in the core concepts of sociology.

2. Introduce students to the concept of extension and principles of extension

3. Allow students to now diffusion and adoption process.

4. Apply different audio visual aids and extension methods in rural development.



Chapter one: - Introduction to sociology

1.1.Definition of sociology and Rural Sociology

1.2.Sociology and History

1.3.Sociology and Other discipline

1.4.Importance of sociology and sociological research methods

Chapter Two:-Rural Socialization

2.1. Why we study rural sociology

2.2. Rural and urban conceptual frame work

2.3.Rural and urban debate

2.4.Types of sociology

Chapter Three: - Society and Culture

3.1. The Concept of Society

   3.1.1. Definition

   3.1.2. Basic Features of a Society

   3.1.3. Conceptualizing Society at Various Levels

   3.1.4. Types or Categories of Societies

3.2. The Concept of Culture

Chapter Four:-Social structure and Institution of rural sociology

4.1. Social stratification

   4.1.1. Importance of studying social stratification

   4.1.2. Theories of social stratification

   4.1.3. Forms of social stratification

4.2. Rural social institution

Chapter Five: -Socialization and Social change

                   5.1. The concept of socialization

                         5.2. Agents and components of

                         5.3. Definition, xcs, dimension and source of social change

                         5.4. Social movement and social mobilization 

Chapter Six:- The History, Development, and Future of Agricultural Extension

6.1 The history and future of extension                                                                            

6.2. Extension terminology & definitions

6.3. Communication processes within extension

6.4. Paradigms of agricultural extension

6.5. Principles and philosophies of extension

6.6. Utility and types of linkages in extension

Chapter Seven: - Diffusion and Adoption of Innovation

7.1. Concept of Diffusion

    7.1.1. Elements of diffusion

    7.1.2. Types of Innovation-Decision

    7.1.3. Consequences of Innovations

7.2. Stages in Adoption and Innovation-Decision process

7.3. Adopter categories & attributes of Innovation

Chapter Eight: Models of extension, research and extension linkages

8.1 Utility and types of Linkages,

8.2. Reasons for linkage failure

8.3. Approaches /models of extension

Chapter Nine: Extension Methods and Types

                    9.1. Classification of Extension Methods

                    9.1.1. According to Use

                    9.1.2. According to Form


Type of assessment

Allotted points


Tests(1 and 2)


At the end of  2nd and 4th chapter

Attendance and quiz





At the end of 7th chapter

Final examination


Based on the registrar’s schedule


Reference books

1.      Australian Aid (AUAID), International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDM) and Deutsche Gesellschaftfür Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ). 2006. Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction in to Development Policy, Planning and Implementation in Asia: A programme of Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC). Klong Luang, Thailand: Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC)  (Available online)

2.      Bekele, T.2004. Comparative Agricultural Extension: An Introductory Text.

3.      Benor, D. and J.Q. Harrison.1977. Agricultural Extension:  The Training and Visit System.  World Bank, Washington, D.C., USA.

4.      Benor, D. and M. Baxter.1984. Training and Visit Extension.  World Bank, Washington, D.C., USA.

5.      Cherinet, H. and Mulugeta E. 2003. A Profile on Gender Relations: Towards Gender Equality in Ethiopia. Stockholm: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA). (Available online).

6.      Calhoun,C.,Light,D.,Keller,S.,Harper,D.1998. Understanding Sociology. Ohio: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. (Available at Ambo University’s Library)

7.      Cherinet, H. and Mulugeta E. 2003. A Profile on Gender Relations: Towards Gender     Equality in Ethiopia. Stockholm: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency

       (SIDA).  (Available online)

8.      Hebding,D.E. and Glick,L. 1996. Introduction to Sociology: A Text With Readings. Fifth Edition. United States of America: McGraw-Hill,Inc. (Available at Ambo University’s Library)

9.      Inkeles, A.2004. What is Sociology? An Introduction to the Discipline and Profession. New Delhi: Printice Hall of India Private Limited. (Available at Ambo University’s Library)

10.  Jha,M. 2004. An Introduction to Social Anthropology. Second Revised Edition. VIKAS PU. (Available at Ambo University’s Library)

11.  Ogato,Gemechu Shale.2008. Assessment of Gender Roles in Crop Production and Management Practices in Ambo District, Ethiopia. Master Thesis. Brussels: Free University of Brussels,Belgium.

12.  Ogato,Gemechu Shale.2008. Assessment of Gender Roles in Crop Production and Management Practices  in Ambo District, Ethiopia. Master Thesis. Brussels: Free University of Brussels,Belgium. (Available at Ambo University’s Library).

13.  OgatoGemechu Shale., Boon E.K and Subramani J. 2009. Gender Roles in Crop Production and Management Practices: A Case Study of Three Rural Communities in Ambo District, Ethiopia. Journal of Human Ecology, 27(1): 1-20 (2009). (Available online)



Approved by                               Name                                   sign                     Date

 Section leader                              ____________________________________________

Department Head               __________________________________________________



Forests and human dependence on forest resources; Ecophysiology: Definition, Physiological processes, Description of biotic and abiotic factors affecting physiological processes and effects on tree and forest growth; Forest ecology as the foundation for sustainable forest management: Definition, Scope and roles, Ecosystem processes and environmental interactions; Forest ecosystem: components, levels of biological organisation and functional integration, structural and functional setups and the ecosystem concept; Production ecology: Growth of forests/carbon and biomass accumulation/storage, effect of management practices on production ecology; Biogeochemistry: Nutrient cycling and the effect of forest management on forest biogeochemistry; The Physical Environment: The dynamics of abiotic factors in forest ecosystems, Effect of forest management on the physical environmental factor; The Biotic environment: Population ecology: Structure and dynamics of populations/demographic characteristics and ecological processes/disturbances, Relations with forest management; Community ecology: Plant physiognomy and distribution along environmental gradients, Interactions between organisms, The role of community ecology in forest management; Ecological Succession: Forest ecosystem dynamics and disturbances, Mechanisms, rates and path of successional changes in forest ecosystems, Effect of forest management in succession; Silvicultural Systems: Definition, Classification and types of silvicultural systems; Regeneration methods; High forest system: clear-cutting, seed tree system, shelterwood system, selection system; Coppice system: coppice clear-cutting, coppice with standards; Formulation of silvicultural systems; Silviculture in the tropics; Introduction: Forest mensuration:  Forestry and measurements, Basic statistical terms important in forest measurement; Single tree measurement: Diameter and height, Basal area, form factor, bark thickness and volume, Tree age, Crown measurements, Single tree biomass; Stand measurement: Stand density and stocking, Stand basal area and volume, Stand biomass; Forest and woodland inventory: Introduction: definition and objectives, Sampling types and techniques, Sampling design and data collection, applications of remote sensing and GIS in forest inventory; Site assessment & estimation of growth and yield: Biophysical conditions, Volume tables and equations, Yield models; Introduction to forest management: Definition, concepts and principles, Current global issues of forest management; Sustained and regulated yield concepts: Definitions: sustainability, yield regulation, Harvest planning, Rotation, Normal forest; Forest management planning: forest management plan, policy, legal and institutional issues in forest management.

Concepts of climate change and variability; historical climate change; causes; evidence of change; climate change and the society; vulnerability to the impacts of climate change; Impacts of climate changes on terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, agriculture, human health and economy; adaptation and adaptive capacity; mitigation and mitigative capacity, international conventions and protocols on climate change; international concerns: policy responses, adaptation mechanisms to climate (agronomic practices, soil and water management,  Adaptation mechanisms(conservation agriculture, pasture management, selecting animal breeds and crop varieties that can adapt to climate changes); Mechanisms for carbon trading. engineering for efficiency and sustainability, carbon capture and sequestration. The Ethiopian climate change adaptation strategies.

History, definition and concept of agroforestry as a land use system; structural, functional, socio-economic and ecological bases of agroforestry; description and analysis of major agroforestry systems and practices and their functions within the farming and forest systems; agroforestry components and their interactions; effect of agroforestry species on soils, nutrient cycling and soil organic matter, role of trees in agroforestry systems, nitrogen fixation and soil conservation; socio-economic aspects of agroforestry; agroforestry evaluation: biological and socio-economic concepts; current methodologies used in agroforestry domain including diagnostic procedures; case studies under Ethiopian conditions.