Course objectives: To equip students with basic knowledge on principles and practices of

laboratory techniques and methods of analysis of soil, water and plant tissue

Learning outcomes: After successful completion of the course, students will be able to

understand the basic principles and practices of laboratory techniques and methods of analysis of

soil, water and tissue materials.

Course description: Sampling and sample preparation (soil, plant and water), and principles and

practices of laboratory techniques and methods of analysis of soil, water and tissue materials

with emphasis on properties of agricultural and environmental significance; and analytical data

processing, interpretation and reporting.


1. Introduction

2. Sampling and Sample Preparation

2.1. Soil Sample

2.2. Plant Sample

2.3. Water Sample

3. Laboratory Techniques and Methods

3.1. Principles and Practices

3.2. Safety Regulations

4. Analytical data

4.1. Collection and Processing

4.2. Interpretation and Reporting

Concepts land evaluation; types of  land evaluation; methods of land evaluation: FAO Method (concepts of land utilization types, land qualities, land characteristics and land use requirements); USDA Method; parametric, limitation, yield estimate and statistical methods; land evaluation for different purposes: irrigation, forestry, grazing and engineering; indigenous, statistical or modeling method;  (GIS) based suitability, presentation of results; land resources information systems; land evaluation and land use planning

Course description: Formation of the seed, seed filling and seed maturity; Environmental conditions necessary for production of high quality seed; Seed dormancy and seed germination; Laboratory and field germination; Improved varieties as inputs to agriculture; Establishing a successful seed production mechanisms; Production of Breeder, basic and certified seeds; System of seed quality control; Seed certification; Optimum storage conditions to maintain seed quality; Seed processing, treatment and marketing,


1. To give students background to the study for seed quality attributes for seed production and certification in the formal seed sector and other systems and services, e.g., gene bank and informal as well as in emergency situations.

2. To give advanced knowledge about the role of seed viability in the process of seed germination, as well as application of physiological knowledge of seed germination in agricultural and industrial operations.

3. To deepen knowledge on optimum conditions for growing and managing a seed crop to ensure maximum seed quality while minimizing seed quantity losses.

4. To deepen the understanding of the factors that influence seed deterioration so that students are able to manage seed quality while the crop is still in the field, post-harvest handling and in

Course contents:

1. Introduction: Definitions; Seed Science & Technology - Importance, & goals;  Seed formation, development and maturity.
2, Seed production and supply system - formal and informal

3. Seed dormancy and germination

4. Introduction to seed testing, Seed sampling and Seed quality analysis; 5, Seed germination, viability and seed vigour testing

 6. Effect of Seed moisture content on seed quality; Seed longevity and deterioration; 7. Seed health testing

8. Seed enhancement for improving agricultural production

9. Principles of seed production

10. Seed quality control in respect to production, supply systems, and other services

11. Variety testing, registration, approval and protection

12. Seed Processing, 13. Seed treatment, 14. Seed storage 

15. Seed Marketing

Practicals :

Seed sampling; seed testing of crops (genetic purity, physical purity, germination, seed viability, seedling vigour and seed health testing); variety testing, releasing and notification procedure for varieties; floral biology of crops; rouging of off-types; seed production of crops, methods of hybrid seed production in important crops; seed extraction techniques; post harvest handling of seed; processing and seed testing equipments.

 Visit to seed processing units; seed testing laboratory and seed production farms. Field tour to Seed Enterprise/Company: Seed production, seed processing & treatment, and seed marketing system and management.

Evaluation: Test (2 x) : 30% ,

 Report: 10% ,

Assignment : 10% ,
Final exam: 50%


•      Agrawal, P. K. and Dadlani M. (Eds.). (1992). Techniques in Seed Science and Technology. South Asian Publ., New Delhi

•      Agrawal, R. L.  (1980). Seed Technology. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. New Delhi, India

•      Bendell, P. E. (Ed.). (1998). Seed Science and Technology: Indian Forestry Species. Allied Publ.

•      References mentioned during classes held

Course objectives: this course is initiated to upgrade students’ ability for better understand and practices which ensure the most adoptable watershed management options and project planning.

Learning outcomes: after successful completion of the course, students will be able to develop water resources development strategies for watershed management and project planning

Course description: The structure and function of watershed ecosystems with emphasis on the ecosystem and geomorphic processes shaping watersheds, measuring ecosystem function in watersheds, and measurement of positive and/or negative changes in ecosystems; processes shaping the structure and functioning of ecosystems and watersheds, their responses to natural and anthropogenic change and recovery to these disturbances; comparison of different ecosystems to watershed responses to anthropogenic changes and collect data from selected field sites to explore the relationship among ecosystem processes and changing climate (or other disturbances); the importance of proper ecologic functioning to the maintenance of healthy watershed systems; concept and planning of watershed management, characteristics of watershed, methods of watershed management, project planning, steps to a successful project, project planning for watershed

Course objectives: this course intends primarily to equip students with basic knowledge about soil and plant nutrition and describes essentiality, levels and role of nutrients.

Learning outcomes: After successful completion of the course, students will be able to comprehend and explain essential nutrients exchange phenomenon and availability, levels and their functions in plants.  

Course description: Concepts of soil and plant nutrition; Food production and soils of world; Goals of soil and plant nutrition studies; Growth and phases of growth; Genetic and environmental factors affecting plant growth; Growth expressions and equations; Role of soil colloids in nutrient supply, exchange phenomenon and availability of ions; Movement of ions in soil (root interception, mass flow and diffusion of ions); Essentiality of nutrients and levels of nutrients in soil system in relation to plant; functions and deficiency symptoms; nutrient (macro and micro) transformations in soil and their bioavailability; nutrient management (industrial fertilizers, bio-fertilizer and organic fertilizers) and their management; Nutrients use efficiency and parameters; fertilizers and the environment; Use of soil and plant tests, their interpretation to evaluate nutrient status of soil; Calibration of soil tests against crop response; diagnosis of fertilizer requirement and recommendation; fertilizer management economics.

Course objectives:

The course enables students to:

  • Learn the weed biology and nature of weed-crop competition and interference.
  • Equip with knowledge regarding various methods of weed control in field crops, orchards, forestry and non-cropped areas.
  • Know the properties and uses of herbicides belonging to different groups.
  • Learn biotechnological issues of weed science.
  • Know the environmental implications of herbicide use.
  • Learn sound planning of weed control experiments for future research.

Course description:

Weeds: definition, characteristics, classification, losses caused and useful aspects; Weed biology: propagation, dispersal, persistence and importance of weed biology in weed control; Weed ecology and weed competition: crop-weed competition, weed-crop interference and critical period of crop-weed competition. Methods of weed control: mechanical, cultural, chemical, biological and integrated. Herbicides: Classification, mechanism of action, properties, formulation, absorption and translocation; Application of herbicide: time dose and method; Herbicide selectivity; Plant environment and herbicide interaction; Fate of herbicide in soil; Herbicide resistance in weeds and its management; Herbicide and environment. Weed management in field crops, orchards, forestry and non-cropped areas; Biotechnological application in weed management; Principles of weed research experiments.

Course content

1.      Weeds: Definition, characteristics, classification, losses caused  and useful aspects

2.      Weed biology

3.      Weed ecology, weed-crop association and competition

4.      Weed management

4.1  components of weed management

4.2  methods of weed control

5.      Herbicides: classification, nomenclature and properties

6.      Herbicide formulation and adjuvants

7.      Herbicide application technology

8.      Herbicide: absorption, translocation and mode of action

9.      Herbicide selectivity

10.  Fate of herbicide in the soil

11.  Crop environment and herbicide interaction

12.  Herbicide and environment

13.  Herbicide resistance and weed shift

14.  Weed management in different crops

15.  Principles of weed research experiment


ü  Collection and identification of weeds

ü  Preparation of weed album

ü  Practical demonstration on different methods of weed control

ü  Calculation of herbicide doses based on active ingredient

ü  Handling of herbicide spray equipments

ü  Maintenance and cleaning of sprayers


Practical report: 10%

Test (2x): 40%

Final exam: 50%


1.      Gupta, Q, P. (2010). Weed management: Principles and Practices. AGROBIOS (India), Jodhpur

2.      Jajakumar, R and Jagannathan, R. (2007). Weed Science Principles. Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana, India.

3.      Walia, U. S. (2006).  Weed Management. Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana, India.

Soil moisture indices. Soil‐water‐plant relationship. Irrigation: its importance and requirement. Sources of water to crop plants. Irrigation efficiency and water use efficiency. Introduction to different irrigation methods (traditional and micro): their applicability to different crops and soil with advantages and limitations. Irrigation scheduling: different criteria for irrigation scheduling. Irrigation depth and frequency. Measurement of irrigation water. Irrigation water quality and management of poor quality water for crop production. Excess soil water: its effect on soil and crops and methods of draining it. Water conservation.