Definition, identification of feed adulterants, factors affecting postharvest biology and technology of food and feed products; methods of feed processing (chemical, physical, biotechnological); feed preservation techniques (silage making haymaking etc.); preserving roots and tubers; formulation of least cost rations; feed laws and regulations; quality control of raw and finished products; food chemistry, biochemistry, food microbiology, food preservation, food processing and genetically modified foods, postharvest storage, and care of raw materials, treatment, quality evaluation, packaging, handling, and distribution of  animal products and feedstuffs (animal and plant origin).