Sugar Processing and Manufacturing Technology


Course Title:                                                  Sugar Processing and Manufacturing Technology

Course code:                                                  IChem.581

Credit hours:                                                        3

Contact Hours:                                              3 Hours per week

Course Outlines

Unit-I: Sugar Chemistry

Sucrose: Structure, physical & chemical properties, uses of sucrose; food applications, feedstock for chemical synthesis, fermentation feedstock, pharmaceutical applications, nutrition & health aspects and metabolism of sucrose.

Sugar Analysis; standards & definitions, physical methods of sugar analysis, Polarimetry, Refractive index, colorimetric methods, determination of moisture, ash & inorganic constituents, particle size distribution, insoluble matter.

Unit-II: Sugar Processing - Juice heating

Introduction: Brief account of the Sugar Industry and Sugar Manufacturing Process, Composition of Sugarcane and Juice, Importance of juice clarification, Weighing and metering of juice.

Juice Heating: Types of juice heater, removal of condensate and non-condensable gases, scaling of tubes, cleaning & testing of heater, Effect of heat on juice, Purpose of primary and secondary heating. Construction and working on Direct Contact Heater (DCH), Plate Heater (PHE), advantages & disadvantages.

Unit-III: Sugar Processing - Clarification

Techniques of clarification; Defecation, Sulphitation & Carbonation, clarificants used in Sugar Manufacture.

Lime; specification, storage - Preparation of milk of lime; rotary lime slacker, classifier, MOL tanks, lime pumps, use of hydrated lime powder.

Sulphur; specification & storage, production of sulphur dioxide gas - combustion of sulphur. Effect of liming & sulphitation on cane juice, simultaneous liming & sulphitation.

Filtration: Importance, preparation of mud – mud mixer, Vacuum filter-construction and working, effect of washing on pol in cake, filtrate receivers, baby condenser, vacuum pump, filtrate clarification system,

Decanters: construction, working, advantages & disadvantages.

Unit-IV: Sugar Processing - Evaporation

Introduction, Construction & Working of Robert type evaporator and multiple effect evaporator, factors affecting heat transfer and performance of evaporators. Condensate Extraction; Non condensable gas removal, Scaling - distribution of scale, tube cleaning, hydraulic test. Condensers - Importance of vacuum, description of jet condenser - automation, Steam & Water Ejectors, injection water requirement, injection pumps, spray pond & cooling tower.

Modern Evaporators - Construction & working of Semi Kestner, Falling film evaporator, & Plate Evaporator; Performance Efficiency of evaporators, Dessin’s formula, calculation of specific evaporation coefficient.

Syrup Treatment: Effect of syrup quality on crystallisation, construction & working of syrup sulphiter, syrup clarification by phosflotation. SO2 content of sugar, its disadvantages, production of sulphur free direct consumption sugar, decolorization by activated carbon, ion exchange resins.

Unit-V: Sugar Processing - Pan Boiling

Pan Boiling: Mechanism of crystallization, Classen’s theory of pan boiling, co-efficient of supersaturation, crystal per cent in massecuite, different methods of graining, crystal growth, conglomeration, false grain formation, molasses conditioning, massecuite % cane.

Boiling Technique: Cobenze’s method of purity control – calculation of grain charge purity, grain cut purity, and massecuite purity, quantities of feed material required in tones and volume, steam requirement for pan boiling, solid balance of boiling and curing, calculation of massecuite % and molasses % for different boiling schemes, exhaustion of molasses – formula, calculation of exhaustion, factors affecting etc.

Unit-VI: Sugar Processing - Finishing Operations

Crystallization: Crystallization while cooling, air cooled & water cooled crystalliser, vertical crystalliser, cooling and reheating of massecuite, transient heater, saturation temperature, pumping of massecuite. Oscillating Vertical Crystallizer

Centrifugals: Theory of centrifugals, gravity factor, types of centrifugals, Continuous Centrifugals and Batch Centrifugals – construction & working; Types of drives & controls, washing of sugar, super-heated wash water system, molasses/syrup separator, drying of sugar in centrifugals.

Drying & Storage: Characteristics of sugar, construction and working of hopper drier, fluidized bed drier, rotary drier, sieving of sugar-grader, bins, dust collectors, hazards due to sugar dust, grading of sugar, sugar standards, specifications of raw sugar, white sugar and refined sugar. Keeping quality of sugar, safety factor, specification of gunny bag, Sugar bins, storage conditions in go-down, construction of go-down storage of final molasses.


1. Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Kirk & Othmer(1992), 4thEd.,Weliy. 

2. Sugar: science and technology. Birch, G. G., Parker, K. J. & National College of Food Technology (1979). Applied Science Publishers, London.

3. Sugar Chemistry Vol-4–Shallenberger R. S.& BirchG. G. (1975), Avi Pub. Co.,Westport, Conn.

4. Principles of Sugar Technology Vol. I:Properties of Sugars and Nonsugars.(1953) Peter Honig, Elsevier

5. Handbook of Cane Sugar Technology, Mathur R. B. L. (1978), Oxford & IBH, New Delhi

6. Introduction to Sugar Technology – Chen & Chou

7. Training Manual for Sugar Factories – Mangal Singh

8. Efficient Management of Sugar Factories – Mangal Singh.