Course Title:                      Emerging Technologies in Food Processing and Preservation

Course code:                      IChem.753

Credit hours:                     3

Contact Hours:                 3 Hours per week



Course Outlines

Chapter - 1 Growth of Microorganisms, Food Preservation: Drying and other basics

1.1 Brief about microbial food contamination and growth of microorganisms on foods.

1.2 Food preservation methods: Traditional, thermal and Non-thermal approach.

1.3 Evaporation: Concentration and condensation - Principles, Equipments and Effect on foods.

1.4 Dehydration: Applications; Dehydrated products – Vegetables and Fruits.

1.5 Drying: Theory of drying.

1.3.1 Drying rate constant; Effective moisture diffusion;

1.3.2 Dryers for solid and liquid food: Foam mat dryer; Vacuum dryer; Freeze dryer.

1.6 Microwave heating of food: Process, Equipment and Applications.


Chapter-II Low temperature preservation, Additives and Fermentation Technology

2.1 Refrigeration: Methods and equipments; Cold storage requirements; Freezing-Theory, Equipment and changes in foods.

2.2 Chemical additives: Food additives: Classification, Criteria for selection; permissible limits; Food safety and E-numbers.

2.3 Preservation by fermentation: Principles; Objectives and Types - alcoholic, acetic and lactic fermentations.

2.3.1 Fermented foods-bread, wine, vinegar, yoghurt, sausages, pickles;

2.3.2 Food irradiation-Principles, applications, equipments, safety aspect, effect on food properties and detection methods.


Chapter-III: Emerging Technologies – I

3.1 Emerging technologies in food processing - Necessity and Advantages.

3.2 Hurdle technology - Concepts and applications.

3.3 Behaviour of microorganisms during preservation

3.4 Multi target preservation and minimal processing.

3.5 High Pressure Processing

3.5.1 Principles of high pressure processing.

3.5.2 Use of high pressure to improve food safety and stability.

3.5.3 Effects of high pressure (HP) on food quality.

3.5.4 Pressure effects on microorganisms, enzyme, texture and nutrients of food.

3.5.5 Modelling of HP processes.


Chapter-IV: Emerging Technologies-II

4.1 Pulsed Electric field processing

4.1.1 Historical background and PEF treatment systems.

4.1.2 Main processing parameters.

4.1.3 Mechanisms of action: mechanisms of microbial and enzyme inactivation.

4.1.4 PEF processing of liquid foods and beverages.

4.1.5 PEF Processing for solid foods.

4.2 Osmotic dehydration

4.2.1 Mechanism of osmotic dehydration.

4.2.2 Effect of process parameters on mass transfer.

4.2.3 Determination of moisture and solid diffusion coefficient.

4.2.4 Application of osmotic dehydration.

4.2.5 Thermal membrane concentration of liquid foods and colours.

4.2.6 Osmotic membrane distillation.

4.2.7 Applications of membrane concentration.


Chapter-V: Emerging Technologies-III

5.1 Processing by radio frequency electric fields

5.1.1 RFEF non-thermal inactivation of yeasts, bacteria and spores.

5.2 Ultrasound processing

5.2.1 Fundamentals of ultrasound; Ultrasound in food preservation and processing aid.

5.2.2 Effects of ultrasound on food properties.

5.3 Alternate thermal processing

5.3.2 Heat and mass transfer in microwave processing.

5.3.3 Application of microwave processing for foods.

5.3.4 Radiofrequency processing-Dielectric heating.

5.3.5 Radio-frequency heating and drying applications.

5.4 Fundamentals of ohmic heating; Electrical conductivity-modelling & treatment of products.

5.5 Hybrid drying technologies

5.5.1 Combining microwave vacuum drying with other processes.

5.5.2 Product quality degradation during dehydration.





1. Food Processing Technology: Principles and Practice, Fellows. P, 3rd edition, Jain Book

Agency, New Delhi (2009)

2. Advanced drying technologies, Kudra,T, A.S.Mujumdar, Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York


3. Emerging Technologies for Food Processing, Da Sun Wan, Jain Book Agency, New Delhi


4. Environment Friendly Food Processing, Mattsson, Jain Book Agency, New Delhi (2005)

5. Handbook of Food Processing Equipment, Gustavo.V Barbosa-Canovas, Athanasios.E, Kostaropoulos, A.F.Harvey, George.D.Saravacos, 1st edition, Springer India (2003).

6. Food Additives: Characteristics, Detection and Estimation, S.N.Mahindru, Jain Book

Agency, New Delhi (2008)

7. Food Processing and Preservation, G.Subalakshmi, Jain Book Agency, New Delhi (2010)

8. Analytical Methods for Food Additives, A.Damant, L.Foster Roger Wood.P, Key Lucy

Foster, Andrew Damant Pauline, Key.R.Wood Damant, Elsevier India (2004)