Chapter - I     Sugar Processing: Finishing Operations

Crystallization: Crystallization while cooling; Air cooled and water cooled crystalliser; Vertical crystalliser;  Cooling and reheating of massecuite; Transient heater; Saturation temperature; Pumping of massecuite; Oscillating Vertical Crystallize.

Centrifugals: Theory of centrifugals; Gravity factor; Washing of sugar, super heated wash water system, Molasses/syrup separator; Drying of sugar in centrifugals.

Drying & Storage: Construction and working of dryer; Hopper drier-fluidized bed drier, rotary drier. 

Sieving of sugar-grader, bins, dust collectors, hazards on sugar dust; Characteristics of sugar; Keeping quality of sugar, safety factor, specification of gunny bag, Sugar bins, Storage conditions in go-down; Construction of go-down storage of final molasses.

Chapter - II    Milling Control

Methods of Control; Concept of refractometric brix; True purity; Differential and inferential methods;

Primary and secondary extraction using simple and compound imbibitions schemes; Ideal extraction; Mill extraction; Plotting of brix curves; Brix free cane water; Inferential Methods - Calculation of bagasse per cent cane; Mixed juice per cent cane; Brix per cent cane; Undiluted juice per cent cane; Undiluted juice in mixed juice per cent cane; Added water per cent cane and Calculation of weight of cane; Mathematical formula - Bagasse/unit cane; Mixed juice per unit cane and added water per unit cane.

Chapter - III Boiling Control

Boiling House Control: SJM Formula, Winter’s formula; Relation between SJM and Winter-Carp’s formula; Standard granulated and Equivalent Standard Granulated (ESG) – calculation; Clarification factor, actual molasses % and non-sugar in molasses %; Non sugar in mixed juice.

Boiling House Recovery: Calculation of boiling house recovery; Basic Boiling House Recovery; Boiling House Performance and Boiling House Recovery.

Chapter – IV Laboratory Control and Analysis

Sample collection: Raw materials, sugar house products & by products; Importance of laboratory control and Laboratory control methods.

Estimation of Solids: Estimation of solids by Brix Hydrometer, Refractometer and Drying.

Estimation of Sugar: Optical activity and specific rotation of sugars; Principle of polarimeter; International sugar scale; Normal weight of sugar; Determination of pol %; Laurent polarimeter, Industrial polarimeter;  White lamp single-wedge / double-wedge polarimeter; Automatic polarimeter; Estimation of Reducing Sugars.

Mode of Delivery:

  • One-to-one teaching / oral questions
  • Presentation; Self Study; Assignment
  • Group discussion; Practice the sugar and its co-product production 

Mode of Assessment:

  • Mid Exam (Viva & Written exam): 30 Marks      
  • Assignment                                 : 10 Marks
  • Presentation & Self-study           : 20 Marks
  • Final Examination                       : 40 Marks


1. Handbook of Cane Sugar Technology, R B L Mathur, Oxford and IBH publishing Co., (1986).

2. Handbook of Cane Sugar Technology, Ram Behari Lal Mathur, 2nd edition, Oxford and IBH Publishing  Co. (1999).

3. Principles of Sugar Technology, Pieter Honig, Elsevier Science (2013)

4. Can Sugar Handbook: A Manual for Sugar Manufacturers and Their Chemists, C.P.Chen and Chung-Chi.Chou, 12th edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1993).

5. The complete book on Sugarcane processing and By-products of Molasses (With analysis of sugar syrup and Molasses), H.Panda, Asia Pacific Business Press Inc., New Delhi (2015)

6. Handbook of Sugar Engineering, E.Hugot, Elsevier Science (2014)