Chapter - 1     Introduction, Processing of sugarcane - Extraction of Juice

Brief introduction; Classification of Sugarcane; Cane evaluation and payment; Cane and Beet Sugar: Composition and processing for manufacturing of raw sugar; Cane Handling equipment’s; Harvesting devices: Knives and Harvesters, Loading and unloading devices; Description of Feeder table, Cane carrier, Cane-cleaning equipment, Dry cleaning of cane; Extraction of the Juice -Cane preparation: Revolving knives; Shredders; fibrizer and crushers

Milling machinery; milling capacity; Mills - Crushing of cane mills: Hydraulic pressure system, grooving of rollers, lotus roller,auto settling mill; Mill settings and Speeds; Intermediate bagasse carriers and Bagasse feeders.

Juice extraction: Milling; Methods of Juice extraction: Primary and Secondary extractions; Milling process: Maceration, imbibitions, saturations; Composition of mill juices; Efficiency of milling; Raw Juice handling; Diffusion and Diffusers: Principle of diffusion; Different designs of diffusers; Comparison of milling and sugar beet diffusers; Bagasse Dewatering

Chapter-II      Allied Sugar Manufacturing

Beet sugar: Introduction to beet sugar industry; Distribution of sugar in beet; Diffusion, clarification and other manufacturing process of beet sugar.

Raw sugar:Specification of raw sugar, Drying & Storage, handling and transport of raw sugar; Quality criteria to purchase of raw sugar

Refined Sugar: Refining quality of raw sugar - evaluation, calculation of raw value; Affination, clarification, ion-exchange and decolorization, evaporation and pan-boiling, centrifugation, sugar drying, packing and storage.

Refined sugar handling and conditioning; Refined sugar products.

Non centrifugal sugar: Manufacture of Jaggery; Nutritive value of Jaggery; Liquid sugars: Manufacture, properties   

Chapter-III    Fermentation and Distillation

Fermentation: Batch, Fed batch and Continuous fermentation; Types of distillation: Atmospheric distillation, MPR distillation, ENA, RS.

Efficiency data collection: Fermentable sugar - Theoretical yield, fermentation recovery, Sludge Loss, Total wash distilled, distillation recovery, Distillation efficiency, Actual yield, Overall efficiency and recovery.

Manufacturing process of anhydrous alcohol

Chapter - IV Sugar byproducts – I

Introduction: Byproducts and co-products of sugar industry; Electricity as a co-product of sugar industry.

Bagasse: Composition, handling, storage and drying; Utilization: Paper, Fiber board, Furfural, Briquettes, Cattle feed & Agricultural mulch.

Filter cake: Characteristics of filter cake; Use as manure; production of cane wax & bio- compost.

Molasses: Composition; Molasses desugarizing; Molasses handling and storage

Alcoholic fermentation: Manufacture of rectified spirit, denatured spirit and absolute alcohol.

Process flow chart of ethanol production.

Chapter - V Sugar byproducts – II

Introduction: Composition, grades and storage of molasses; Effect of various components of molasses on distillation.

Fundamentals of yeast growth, aerobic and anaerobic; Common strains of yeast used for alcoholic fermentation.

Definitions related to distillery: Total reducing sugar, un-fermentable and fermentable sugar, residual sugar, 0Brix: Definition, determination and applications

Industrial alcohol: Ethyl alcohol, proof spirit & Strength of spirit.

Chapter - VI Steam & Electricity Generation

Boiler fuels: Characteristics of bagasse and bagasse combustion; Factory steam and energy balance; Formation of steam; Construction of water tube boilers; Boiler Instrumentation and Control

Steam turbines – Classification, description and working of Condensing type turbines; Specific steam consumption

Alternators: Generation of electricity-sugar factory requirements; Alternators: Size, Type, efficiency, 3 phase AC generation and power transmission system.

Mode of Delivery

  • Gapped Lecture / Asking oral questions
  • Independent reading/assignments/Practice to prepare Jaggery like co-products in Lab.
  • Group discussion / Practice the analysis of sugar and sugarcane juice (in Lab).
  • Presentation & Practice the fermentation of cane juice to prepare some commodity chemicals.

Mode of Assessment

  • Mid exam (online Viva & Written Test’s): 35
  • Assignment & Presentation: 25
  • Final Examination (Written Exam): 40


1. Hand Book of Cane Sugar Engineering, E Hugot, Elsevier Science, 3rd edition (1986).

2. The complete book on Sugarcane and By-products of Molasses, H.Panda, Asia Pacific Business Press Inc., New Delhi, India (2010)

3. Cane Sugar Handbook – A manual for cane sugar manufacturers and their chemists, James C.P.Chen      and George P.Meade, 12th edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York (1993).

4.  E-Book: Beet-Sugar Handbook, Mosen Asadi, Wiley-Interscience, A John-Wiley & Sons, Inc. publication, New Jersey (2007). 

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